Gibraltar Wikipedia

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Gibraltar (deutsch [ɡiˈbʁaltaʁ], englisch [dʒɪˈbɹɒltə], spanisch [ xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) ist ein britisches Überseegebiet an der Südspitze der Iberischen Halbinsel. Die reichen Fischgründe vor der Iberischen Halbinsel waren immer wieder Auslöser des Fischereistreits von Gibraltar zwischen Spanien und dem zum. Gibraltar wurde während des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges durch England erobert und erhielt den Status einer Kronkolonie. Spanien verlangte. Gibraltar gehört zum Vereinigten Königreich, liegt aber im Süden von Spanien. wurde der Gorham's Cave Komplex im Rock of Gibraltar zum. sind die frei lebenden Berberaffen, die Tropfsteinhöhle, der Leuchtturm sowie die in den Fels geschlagenen Verteidigungsanlagen („Gibraltar“, in Wikipedia).

Gibraltar Wikipedia

Die reichen Fischgründe vor der Iberischen Halbinsel waren immer wieder Auslöser des Fischereistreits von Gibraltar zwischen Spanien und dem zum. (All user names refer to greeninitiatives.codia). RedCoat10 ×​×8 ( bytes) A photograph of a [[Gibraltar Barbary Macaques|Barbary. „Mons Calpe“) aus: greeninitiatives.co ) Syria Die römische Provinz Syria wurde im Jahre 63 v. Chr. vom Feldherrn Gnaeus Pompeius. Gibraltar Wikipedia

Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour. Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco.

The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.

Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history. There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula.

Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater.

This became increasingly inadequate as Gibraltar's population grew in the 18th and 19th centuries and lethal diseases such as cholera and yellow fever began to spread.

In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.

Today Gibraltar's supply of drinking water comes entirely from desalination , with a separate supply of saltwater for sanitary purposes.

Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. Outside the United Kingdom, the RGP is the oldest police force of the former British Empire , formed shortly after the creation of London's Metropolitan Police in when Gibraltar was declared a crown colony on 25 June In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".

The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic.

The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive. The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units.

These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.

Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom tri-services British Forces Gibraltar. In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base.

The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British Overseas Territory.

For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation. British Overseas Territory. British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom.

Coat of arms. English Andalusian Spanish Llanito. Gibraltarian British Maghrebis. Gibraltarian Llanito colloquial.

Main article: History of Gibraltar. Main article: Politics of Gibraltar. See also: Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar.

Places adjacent to Gibraltar. Main article: Climate of Gibraltar. See also: List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar.

Main article: Economy of Gibraltar. Main article: Demographics of Gibraltar. See also: Gibraltarian people. Main article: Languages of Gibraltar.

Percentage of population by religion [3] Percentage Roman Catholic. Main article: Education in Gibraltar. Main article: Culture of Gibraltar.

Main article: Sport in Gibraltar. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Communications in Gibraltar. Main article: Transport in Gibraltar.

Main article: Gibraltar International Airport. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar. The Royal Navy 's base in Gibraltar.

Gibraltar portal. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration. Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.

Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 5 June Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.

The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.

Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.

British Foreign Policy Group. Retrieved 2 April City AM. The Local. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 23 July Montgomery Watt; Pierre Cachia A History of Islamic Spain.

Transaction Publishers. NBC News. Retrieved 8 January Gibraltar before the British. London: Unpublished proof copy held by the British Library.

OCLC Rock of Contention: A history of Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. Archived from the original PDF on 4 May Retrieved 7 March The New Statesman.

Retrieved 26 August Community and identity. The making of modern Gibraltar since Manchester University Press.

Gibraltar Books. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 20 December British Broadcasting Corporation. The Guardian. In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement.

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 15 June BBC News. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 March Electoral Commission.

Archived from the original on 5 December The Independent. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 6 November United Nations Committee on Decolonization.

Retrieved 28 June Paragraph 83, p. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 9 January Baseline climate means — from stations all over the world in French.

Retrieved 4 November Global station data — — Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 25 May Gibraltar British Overseas Territory ".

Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 3 August Government of Gibraltar.

Retrieved 25 June Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 11 May Feist, James A.

Heely, Min H. Lu, p. Simons June Guardian International Currency Corp. Archived from the original on 11 October Lonely Planet.

Archer 11 January Gibraltar, Identity and Empire. Retrieved 5 October BoD — Books on Demand. Official Government of Gibraltar London website.

Retrieved 10 April The Methodist Church. Retrieved 30 October Prior Park School Gibraltar. Retrieved on 28 October Archived from the original on 2 March Expat Focus.

Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 17 February Kogan Page Publishers. E-Health Insider. Retrieved 13 October Digital Health.

Retrieved 9 July Gibraltar Chronicle. Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. April Retrieved 7 July Home and Lifestyle Magazine.

Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 31 August Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Archived from the original on 9 September Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society.

November Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 20 May BBC Sport. Retrieved 14 October Enfield: Guinness Superlatives Ltd.

Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 February Airport Agreement" PDF.

Archived from the original PDF on 24 November Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 21 December Google Maps.

Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 5 August Ministry of Defence. December Retrieved 29 January Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Archived from the original on 30 September Harper Press, Abulafia, David London: Allen Lane. Bond, Peter Gibraltar: Peter-Tan Publishing Co.

Gibraltar — The Great Siege. Patrice Courcelle 1st ed. Gibraltar: Osprey Publishing. Drinkwater, John: A history of the siege of Gibraltar, — With a description and account of that garrison from the earliest periods London, Gibraltar topics.

Bernard's Hospital. Chief Minister Governor Mayor. Anthem Coat of arms Official flag other flags. Category Commons Portal WikiProject.

Links to related articles. Capitals of European states and territories. Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Capitals of British administrative divisions. National capital : London. Countries and territories of the Mediterranean Sea.

Northern Cyprus Palestine. Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales.

List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom. British Empire. Occupied jointly with the United States.

In , Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. Judiciary Judiciary of Gibraltar Law of Gibraltar.

Other Disputed status of Gibraltar Sovereignty referendum, Sovereignty referendum, Gibraltar and Brexit Disputed status of the isthmus History of nationality Gibraltar passport Gibraltar identity card Visa policy Political development in modern Gibraltar.

Gibraltar portal Other countries. Habsburg occupation. Appointed by Archduke Charles. Major-General John Shrimpton , Governor.

Major-General Roger Elliott , Governor. Brigadier-General Thomas Stanwix , Governor. General The Earl of Portmore , Governor.

General Joseph Sabine , Governor. The Earl of Home , Governor. Major-General John Parslow , acting Governor. John Irwin , acting Governor.

Robert Boyd , acting Governor. George Augustus Eliott , Governor. The Lord Heathfield , Governor. Sir Robert Boyd , acting Governor.

Sir Robert Boyd , Governor. Henry Clinton , Governor. The Duke of Kent. Sir Hew Dalrymple , acting Governor. Sir John Cradock , acting Governor.

Brigadier-General John Smith , acting Governor. Colin Campbell , acting Governor. Sir George Don , acting Governor.

The Earl of Chatham , Governor. Gibraltar becomes a British Crown colony. Sir William Houston , acting Governor. Sir Alexander Woodford , Governor.

Sir Robert Wilson , Governor. Sir Robert Gardiner , Governor. Sir James Fergusson , Governor.

Sir William Codrington , Governor. Sir Richard Airey , Governor. Sir William Williams , Governor.

The Lord Napier of Magdala , Governor. Sir Arthur Hardinge , Governor. Sir Robert Biddulph , Governor. Sir George Stuart White , Governor.

Sir Frederick Forestier-Walker , Governor. Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien , Governor. Sir Charles Monro , Governor. Sir Charles Harington Harington , Governor.

Sir Edmund Ironside , Governor. Sir Clive Gerard Liddell , Governor. The Viscount Gort , Governor. Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane , Governor.

Sir Kenneth Anderson , Governor. General Sir William Jackson , Governor. Gibraltar becomes a British dependent territory.

Under the British Nationality Act Admiral Sir David Williams , Governor. Sir John Chapple , Governor. Sir Richard Luce , Governor.

Gibraltar becomes a British overseas territory.

Gibraltar Wikipedia - Inhaltsverzeichnis

In: Spiegel Online. Gibraltar begründete sein Vorgehen damit, dass die Fischer in Meeresschutzgebieten fischten, in denen nicht mit Netzen gefischt werden dürfte. Es gibt viele Gaststätten. Juni , abgerufen am 2. Bei den Restaurants ist die Qualität durchaus unterschiedlich, es lohnt sich also etwas zu suchen. Auch im restlichen Gebiet gibt es immer wieder Polizeipräsenz bzw.

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Gibraltar será español pero sólo en la Wikipedia - El Mundo Today 24H World Culture Encyclopedia, abgerufen am 2. Wikimedia-Benutzername : RedCoat. Municipality of Funchal,archiviert vom Original am 2. Michael's Cave, eine Tropfsteinhöhle, von Afrika nach Europa gekommen sind, andere Vermutungen gehen von der Ansiedlung durch Mauren oder sogar Römer aus. November zu boykottieren. Ansichten FuГџballvereine Deutsche Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. [1] Wikipedia-Artikel „Gibraltar“: [1] Duden online „Gibraltar“: [*] Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache „Gibraltar“: [1] Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Portal „. „Mons Calpe“) aus: greeninitiatives.co ) Syria Die römische Provinz Syria wurde im Jahre 63 v. Chr. vom Feldherrn Gnaeus Pompeius. (All user names refer to greeninitiatives.codia). RedCoat10 ×​×8 ( bytes) A photograph of a [[Gibraltar Barbary Macaques|Barbary. Straße von Gibraltar – Wikipedia. Straße von Gibraltar Exotische Orte, Marokko, Spanien, Afrika, Erkunden, Berge,. Gemerkt von greeninitiatives.co

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The shoreline measures 12 kilometres 7. The threat of the Barbary pirates was click here joined by that of Spain's enemies in northern Europe. Gibraltar has several attractive attributes as a financial centreincluding a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services. Dennis, Philip To do World Tour 2020, two fleets were fitted out: one set out to America and another to the western Mediterranean with the ostensible objective of fighting the Barbary pirates. Tobacco was also heavily taxed, providing one Slotpark Bonus the government's principal sources of revenue. Algora Publishing, 1 April Retrieved 4 November

The Spanish fleet was unable to intercept Darby's relief. The Spanish, frustrated by this failure, began a barrage of the town, causing great panic and terror among the civilian population.

Unable to starve the garrison out, the French and Spanish attempted further attacks by land and sea.

The night before the Grand Attack on 27 November , the British garrison filed silently out of their defence works and made a surprise sortie , routing the besieging infantry in their trenches and postponed the grand assault on The Rock for some time.

On 13 September the Bourbon allies launched their great attack; fighting men, both French and Spanish, aboard ten of the newly engineered ' floating batteries ' with [] heavy guns, as well as 18 ships of the line, 40 Spanish gunboats and 20 bomb-vessels [] with a total of 30, sailors and marines.

They were supported by 86 land guns [] and 35, Spanish and French troops 7, [] —8, [] French on land intending to assault the fortifications once they had been demolished.

But the garrison replied with red-hot shot to set fire to and sink the attacker's floating batteries and warships in the Bay.

The British destroyed three of the floating batteries, [] which blew up as the 'red-hot shot' did its job. The other seven batteries were scuttled by the Spanish.

In addition men on board the ships many of whom drowned were casualties. In Britain the Admiralty considered plans for a major relief of Gibraltar, opting to send a larger, but slower fleet, rather than a smaller faster one.

Vincent on 9 October. The following evening a gale blew up, scattering the Spanish and French fleet and allowing Howe to sail unopposed into Gibraltar.

A total of 34 ships of the line escorted 31 transport ships, which delivered supplies, food, and ammunition. The fleet also brought the 25th , 59th , and 97th regiments of foot bringing the total number of the garrison to over 7, [] [] Howe then sailed out and fought an indecisive battle with the combined allied fleet before withdrawing to Britain in line with his orders.

The siege was continued for some months longer, but in the spring of a preliminary peace agreement brought the cessation of hostilities.

Finally, in February the siege was lifted. The outcome of the Great Siege made it politically impossible for the British government to again consider trading away Gibraltar, even though King George III warned that it would be the source "of another war, or at least of a constant lurking enmity" and expressed his wish "if possible to be rid of Gibraltar I shall not think peace complete if we do not get rid of Gibraltar.

Britain's loss of North American colonies in led to much of her trade being redirected to new markets in India and the East Indies.

The favoured route to the east was via Egypt , even before the Suez Canal had been built, and Gibraltar was the first British port reached by ships heading there.

The new maritime traffic gave Gibraltar a greatly increased role as a trading port. At the same time, it was a haven in the western Mediterranean from the disruption of the Napoleonic Wars.

Many of the new immigrants were Genoese people who had fled Napoleon's annexation of the old Republic of Genoa.

Portuguese made up another 20 per cent, Spaniards The young Benjamin Disraeli described the inhabitants of Gibraltar as a mixture of "Moors with costumes as radiant as a rainbow or Eastern melodrama, Jews with gaberdines and skull-caps, Genoese, Highlanders and Spanish.

The American naval officer Alexander Slidell Mackenzie , writing in , described the market traders and shoppers in what is now John Mackintosh Square :.

The high handed hauteur of his majesty's officer, as he lounges at a corner in utter scorn of the busy crew of bargainers; the supple cit[izen] who bows breast low to him in hope of a nod of condescension Gibraltar was an unhealthy place to live due to its poor sanitation and living conditions.

It was repeatedly ravaged by epidemics of yellow fever and cholera , which killed thousands of the inhabitants and members of the garrison.

In July a French and Spanish naval force fought the two Battles of Algeciras off Gibraltar, which ended in disaster for the Spanish when two of their largest warships each mistook the other for the enemy, engaged each other, collided, caught fire and exploded, killing nearly 2, Spanish sailors.

It thus became the first newspaper in the world to report the victory at Trafalgar, two weeks ahead of The Times.

In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a major supply base for supporting the Spanish uprising against Napoleon.

French forces reached as far as San Roque, just north of Gibraltar, but did not attempt to target Gibraltar itself as they believed that it was impregnable.

Gibraltar faced no further military threat for a century. After peace returned, Gibraltar underwent major changes during the reformist governorship of General Sir George Don , who took up his position in The damage caused by the Great Siege had long since been repaired, but Gibraltar was still essentially a medieval town in its layout and narrow streets.

A lack of proper drainage had been a major contributing factor in the epidemics that had frequently ravaged the fortress.

Don implemented improved sanitation and drainage as well as introducing street lighting, rebuilding St Bernard's Hospital to serve the civilian population and initiating the construction of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity to serve Gibraltar's Protestant civilians.

An Exchange and Commercial Library was founded in , with the Exchange Committee initially focused on furthering the interests of merchants based in the fortress.

The Committee evolved into a local civilian voice in government, although it had no real powers. In the same year, the Gibraltar Police Force was established, modelled on London's pioneering Metropolitan Police Service , [] and a Supreme Court was set up to try civil, criminal and mixed cases.

The economic importance of Gibraltar changed following the invention of steamships ; the first one to reach Gibraltar's harbour arrived there in Transshipment, which had previously been Gibraltar's principal economic mainstay, was largely replaced by the much less lucrative work of servicing visiting steamships through coaling, victualling and ferrying of goods.

Although Gibraltar became a key coaling station where British steamships refuelled on the way to Alexandria or Cape Horn , the economic changes resulted in a prolonged depression that lasted until near the end of the century.

The poor economy meant that Gibraltar's population barely changed between and , but it was still relatively more prosperous than the severely impoverished south of Spain.

Visiting Gibraltar in the midth century, the English writer Richard Ford wrote in his Handbook for Travellers in Spain that "the differences of nations and costumes are very curious: a motley masquerade is held in this halfway house between Europe, Asia, and Africa, where every man appears in his own dress and speaks his own language.

Civilization and barbarism clash here indeed The entire commerce of the Peninsula seems condensed into this microcosmus, where all creeds and nations meet, and most of them adepts at the one grand game of beggar my neighbour.

Relations with Spain during the 19th century were generally amicable. The problem arose after Spain imposed tariffs on foreign manufactured goods in a bid to protect Spain's own fledgling industrial enterprises.

Tobacco was also heavily taxed, providing one of the government's principal sources of revenue. The inevitable result was that Gibraltar, where cheap tobacco and goods were readily available, became a centre of intensive smuggling activity.

From the first early opening of the gates there is to be seen a stream of Spanish men, women and children, horses and a few caleches, passing into the town where they remain moving about from shop to shop until about noon.

The human beings enter the Garrison in their natural sizes, but quit it swathed and swelled out with our cotton manufactures, and padded with tobacco, while the carriages and beasts, which come light and springy into the place, quit it scarcely able to drag or bear their burdens.

The Spanish authorities bear part in this traffic, by receiving a bribe from every individual passing the Lines, their persons and their purposes being thoroughly known to them.

Some of these people take hardware goods, as well as cotton and tobacco, into Spain. The problem was eventually reduced by imposing duties on imported goods, which made them much less attractive to smugglers and raised funds to make much-needed improvements to sanitation.

A Colonel Sayer, who was garrisoned at Gibraltar in the s, described the town as "composed of small and crowded dwellings, ill ventilated, badly drained and crammed with human beings.

Upwards of 15, persons are confined within a space covering a square mile [2. One doctor commented that "the open street is much more desirable than many of the lodgings of the lower orders of Gibraltar.

By the end of the 19th century, the "Gibraltarians" were given an official identity for the first time.

The emergence of the Gibraltarians as a distinct group owed much to the pressure on housing in the territory and the need to control the numbers of the civilian population, as Gibraltar was still first and foremost a military fortress.

Two Orders in Council of and stipulated that no child of alien parent could be born in Gibraltar, no foreigners could claim a right of residence and that only Gibraltar-born inhabitants were entitled to reside there; everyone else needed permits, unless they were employees of the British Crown.

In addition to the 14, Gibraltarians, there were also British people, Maltese and from other British dominions.

By the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, Gibraltar's future as a British colony was in serious doubt. Its economic value was diminishing, as a new generation of steamships with a much longer range no longer needed to stop there to refuel en route to more distant ports.

Its military value was also increasingly in question due to advances in military technology.

New long-range guns firing high-explosive shells could easily reach Gibraltar from across the bay or in the Spanish hinterland, while the development of torpedoes meant that ships at anchor in the bay were also vulnerable.

A Spanish proposal to swap Gibraltar for Ceuta on the other side of the Strait was considered but was eventually rejected.

From , the Royal Navy was greatly expanded and both Gibraltar and Malta were equipped with new, torpedo-proof harbours and expanded, modernised dockyards.

The value of the naval base was soon apparent when the First World War broke out in August The naval base was heavily used by Allied warships for resupplying and repairs.

The Bay of Gibraltar was also used as a forming-up point for Allied convoys, while German U-boats stalked the Strait looking for targets.

On two occasions, Gibraltar's guns unsuccessfully fired on two U-boats travelling through the Strait. The restoration of peace inevitably meant a reduction in military expenditure, but this was more than offset by a large increase in liner and cruise ship traffic to Gibraltar.

British liners travelling to and from India and South Africa customarily stopped there, as did French, Italian and Greek liners travelling to and from America.

Oil bunkering became a major industry alongside coaling. An airfield was established in on the isthmus linking Gibraltar to Spain.

Civil society was reformed as well; in an Executive Council and an elected City Council were established to advise the governor, in the first step towards self-government of the territory.

The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July presented Gibraltar with major security concerns, as it was initially on the front lines of the conflict.

The ultimately successful rebellion led by General Francisco Franco broke out across the Strait in Morocco, and the Spanish Republican government sought on several occasions to regain control of the Nationalist -controlled area around Algeciras.

Although Gibraltar was not directly affected by the fighting, the war caused significant disruption.

An undetermined number of Spanish refugees, perhaps as many as 10, persons, fled to Gibraltar, resulting in severe overcrowding.

In May , one of the ships involved in the patrol, the destroyer HMS Hunter , hit a Nationalist mine and had to be towed back to Gibraltar with eight of her crew dead.

On one hand, the British authorities, the Anglican and Catholic churches and the Gibraltarian moneyed class supported the Nationalists in the War, while the working class sided with the Republicans.

The outbreak of the Second World War in September did not initially cause much disruption in Gibraltar, as Spain and Italy were neutral at the time.

The situation changed drastically after April when Germany invaded France , with Italy joining the invasion in June The British Government feared that Spain would also enter the war and it was decided to evacuate the entire civilian population of Gibraltar in May A new and powerful naval group called Force H was established at Gibraltar to control the entrance to the Mediterranean and support Allied forces in North Africa, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.

During the Battle of the Atlantic, Gibraltar played a key role. Gibraltar was directly attacked, both overtly and covertly, on several occasions during the war.

Vichy French aircraft carried out bombing attacks in after the surprise attack of their fleet by the royal navy and there were sporadic raids from Italian and German long-range aircraft, though the damage caused was not significant.

Despite Franco's willingness to overlook German and Italian activities in and around the Bay of Gibraltar, he decided not to join Hitler's planned Operation Felix to seize the territory.

It relied on grain imports from the Americas, which would certainly have been cut off had Franco gone to war with the Allies. German and Italian spies kept a constant watch on Gibraltar and sought to carry out sabotage operations, sometimes successfully.

The Italians repeatedly carried out raids on Gibraltar's harbour using human torpedoes and divers operating from the Spanish shore, damaging a number of merchant ships and sinking one.

Although Gibraltar's civilian inhabitants had started to return as early as April , the last evacuees did not arrive back home until as late as February The immediate problem after VJ Day was a lack of shipping, as all available vessels were needed to bring troops home, but the longer-term problem was a lack of civilian housing.

The garrison was relocated to the southern end of the peninsula to free up space and military accommodation was temporarily reused to house the returning civilians.

A programme to build housing projects was implemented, though progress was slow due to shortages of building materials.

By , over 2, flats had either been built or were under construction. In the war's aftermath, Gibraltar took decisive steps towards implementing civilian self-governance over most issues of public policy.

Women were given the right to vote in , and in a Legislative Council was established. That same year Hassan became the first Mayor of Gibraltar.

This inevitably caused tension and controversy if the Governor and Legislative Council disagreed, but in the British Government agreed to confine the powers of the Governor to matters of defence, security and foreign relations.

The old title of "Colony of Gibraltar" was dropped and the territory was renamed as the City of Gibraltar. Gibraltar's post-war relationship with Spain was marred by an intensification of the long-running dispute over the territory's sovereignty.

Although Spain had not attempted to use military force to regain Gibraltar since , the question of sovereignty was still present.

Disputes over smuggling and the sea frontier between Gibraltar and Spain had repeatedly caused diplomatic tensions during the 19th century.

This originally had been an undemarcated strip of sand on the isthmus between the British and Spanish lines of fortifications, about 1 kilometre 0.

Over the years, however, Britain took control of most of the neutral zone, much of which is now occupied by Gibraltar's airport.

This expansion provoked repeated protests from Spain. Spain's push to regain sovereignty over Gibraltar was fuelled by the decolonisation agenda of the United Nations, which had been initiated in In that year, Britain had listed Gibraltar among other "Overseas Dependent Territories" in conjunction with the drive towards decolonisation, but it was not appreciated at the time that Gibraltar was in a unique position; due to the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, it could only be British or Spanish and could not gain independence.

The British government followed a policy of allowing its colonies to become self-governing entities before giving them the option of independence.

Almost all took it, choosing to become independent republics. That option was not available to Gibraltar under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, which required that if Britain ever relinquished control it was to be handed back to Spain.

The dispute initially took the form of symbolic protests and a campaign by Spanish diplomats and the state-controlled media.

From , Spain imposed increasingly stringent restrictions on trade and the movements of vehicles and people across the border with Gibraltar.

The following year, Spain closed its airspace to aircraft taking off or landing at Gibraltar International Airport.

In , after the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order , to which Spain strongly objected, the frontier was closed completely and Gibraltar's telecommunications links through Spain were cut.

The Spanish decision had major consequences not only for the political relationship between Spain and the United Kingdom, but for the people of Gibraltar, many of whom had relatives or homes in Spain.

As one of the Gibraltarians who suffered the closure of the frontier explains:. The saddest sight was seeing people behind the wire fences on both sides of the land frontier yelling at the top of their voices across the wide dividing space to enquire about the state of relatives, as telephone communications had been cut by the Spaniards.

Local housewives with Spanish relatives in the Campo area kept their radios tuned to the nearby Spanish stations for news of family members who were gravely ill.

In critical cases the parties concerned would rush to Spain via Tangiers but unfortunately sometimes the patient was dead and buried by the time they arrived.

The Spanish authorities would not allow access across the land frontier even on compassionate grounds. Franco's death in led to the beginnings of diplomatic movement between Britain and Spain on the Gibraltar issue, though not immediately.

Although Britain promised to "honour the freely and democratically expressed wishes of the people of Gibraltar", [] Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher indicated in the House of Commons that sovereignty would be on the table, in a change from the previous policy.

However, the border was not reopened due to "technical issues" — code for unresolved issues between the two governments — and the agreement was strongly opposed by many Gibraltarians, who did not wish their sovereignty to be under discussion and objected to the lack of Gibraltarian representatives at the talks.

The border was finally fully reopened on 4—5 February After the border reopened, the British government reduced the military presence in Gibraltar by closing the naval dockyard.

The British garrison, which had been present since , was withdrawn in following defence cutbacks at the end of the Cold War.

A number of military units continue to be stationed in Gibraltar under the auspices of British Forces Gibraltar ; the garrison was replaced with locally recruited units of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, while a Royal Navy presence is continued through the Gibraltar Squadron , responsible for overseeing the security of Gibraltar's territorial waters.

The military cutbacks inevitably had major implications for Gibraltar's economy, which had up to that point depended largely on defence expenditure.

The government also encouraged the development of new industries such as financial services, duty-free shopping , casinos and Internet gambling.

To facilitate the territory's economic expansion, a major programme of land reclamation was carried out; a tenth of Gibraltar's present-day land area was reclaimed from the sea.

These initiatives proved enormously successful. By , Chief Minister Peter Caruana was able to boast that Gibraltar's economic success had made it "one of the most affluent communities in the entire world.

Grand Casemates Square , renovated and pedestrianised in the late s. Ocean Village Marina , a luxury marina resort with premier berths for yachts.

The new terminal of Gibraltar International Airport , opened in , with the Rock of Gibraltar behind. Gibraltar's relationship with Spain continued to be a sensitive subject.

By , Britain and Spain had proposed an agreement to share sovereignty over Gibraltar. However, it was opposed by the government of Gibraltar, which put it to a referendum in November Although both governments dismissed the outcome as having no legal weight, [] the outcome of the referendum caused the talks to stall and the British government accepted that it would be unrealistic to try to reach an agreement without the support of the people of Gibraltar.

The tercentenary of the capture of Gibraltar was celebrated in the territory in August but attracted criticism from some in Spain.

Among the changes was an agreement to lift restrictions on Gibraltar's airport to enable airlines operating from Spain to land there and to facilitate use of the airport by Spanish residents.

A new Constitution Order was promulgated in the same year, which was approved by a majority of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Part of a series on the. Early modern. Royal Calpe Hunt. Modern Gibraltar. Second sovereignty referendum Cordoba Agreement, Second constitution.

See also. History of nationality in Gibraltar Political development in modern Gibraltar. Main article: Moorish Gibraltar. Main article: War of the Spanish Succession.

Key locations in modern Gibraltar. Gibraltar portal. Medieval Archaeology. BBC News. Retrieved 16 February The Daily Telegraph.

The history of Gibraltar and of its political relation to events in Europe. Retrieved 4 February Gibraltar: the history of a fortress.

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Retrieved 16 April But it must be remembered that in those days there was still a code of conduct in warfare, and some elementary humanity in those who waged it.

Gaceta de Madrid. Encontrado por Todo a Babor. Retrieved on 11 March Retrieved 21 March The Vancouver Sun. The Guardian.

Retrieved 3 March Government of Gibraltar. Retrieved 29 November Statistics Office, Government of Gibraltar. Retrieved 18 February Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 8 March Abulafia, David London: Allen Lane. Aldrich, Robert; Connell, John The Last Colonies. Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, Marc Gibraltar: Conquered by No Enemy. Stroud, Glos: The History Press. Andrews, Allen Proud Fortress: the fighting story of Gibraltar.

London: Evans Bros. Archer, Edward G. Gibraltar, Identity and Empire. London: Routledge. Ayala, Lopez de The History of Gibraltar from the earliest period.

Translated by James Bell. London: Pickering. New York: Greenwood Press. Bond, Peter Gibraltar: Peter-Tan Publishing Co. Bradford, Ernle Gibraltar: The History of a Fortress.

London: Rupert Hart-Davis. Bruner, E. A new look at an old cranium". In Harvati, Katerina; Harrison, Terry eds. Neanderthals revisited: new approaches and perspectives.

Vertebrate paleobiology and paleoanthropology. Dordrecht: Springer. Gibraltar — The Great Siege. Patrice Courcelle 1st ed. Gibraltar: Osprey Publishing.

Archived from the original on 27 September Collins, Roger Spain: an Oxford archaeological guide.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cornwell, B. A Description of Gibraltar: with an account of the blockade, siege, the attempt by nine sail of fire ships, the sally made from the garrison, and every thing remarkable or worthy notice that has occurred in that place since the commencement of the Spanish war.

Dennis, Philip Devenish, David Gibraltar before the British. London: Unpublished proof copy held by the British Library.

Drinkwater, John: A history of the siege of Gibraltar, — With a description and account of that garrison from the earliest periods London, Dunsworth, Holly M.

Human Origins Falkner, James Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. Fa, Darren; Finlayson, Clive The Fortifications of Gibraltar — Fortress Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

Ford, Richard The Handbook for Travellers in Spain, Part 1. London: J. Gold, Peter Gibraltar: British or Spanish?

Grove, Eric, ed. The Defeat of the Enemy Attack upon Shipping. Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular port for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain.

The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain.

It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free, but may be subject to Gibraltar taxes. Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger and Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango.

A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Jyske Bank claims to be the oldest bank in the country, based on Jyske's acquisition in of Banco Galliano , which began operations in Gibraltar in In , Gibraltar enacted the Companies Taxation and Concessions Ordinance now an Act , which provided for special tax treatment for international business.

Gibraltar has several attractive attributes as a financial centre , including a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services.

The Financial Services Commission FSC , [78] which was established by an ordinance in now an Act that took effect in , regulates the finance sector.

As of [update] , Gibraltar has 0. The currency of Gibraltar is the Gibraltar pound , issued by the Government of Gibraltar under the terms of the Currency Notes Act.

These banknotes are legal tender in Gibraltar alongside Bank of England banknotes. Unofficially, most retail outlets in Gibraltar accept the euro , though some payphones and the Royal Gibraltar Post Office , along with all other government offices, do not.

The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation ; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.

The demographics of Gibraltar reflect the many European and other economic migrants who came to the Rock over years ago, after almost all of the Spanish population left in The official language of Gibraltar is English, and is used by the government and in schools.

Most locals are bilingual , also speaking Spanish. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages are also spoken on the Rock.

Berber and Arabic are spoken by the Moroccan community, as are Hindi and Sindhi by the Indian community.

Maltese is spoken by some families of Maltese descent. Llanito also often involves code-switching to English and Spanish. Gibraltarians often call themselves Llanitos.

According to the census, approximately Other Christian denominations include the Church of England 7. Several of these congregations are represented by the Gibraltar Evangelical Alliance.

The third religion in size is Islam 3. There are four functioning Orthodox synagogues in Gibraltar and several kosher establishments.

Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English model , operating within a three tier system. Gibraltar has 15 state schools , two private schools and a college of further education, Gibraltar College.

Government secondary schools are Bayside Comprehensive School for boys and Westside School for girls, and Prior Park School Gibraltar is an independent coeducational secondary school.

All Gibraltarian students used to follow the UK student loans procedure , applying for a loan from the Student Loans Company which was then reimbursed in full by the Government of Gibraltar.

In August , this system was replaced by the direct payment by the government of grants and tuition fees.

The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians continue their studies at university level. All Gibraltarians are entitled to health care in public wards and clinics at St Bernard's Hospital and primary health care centre.

All other British citizens are also entitled to free-of-charge treatment on the Rock on presentation of a valid British passport during stays of up to 30 days.

Dental treatment and prescribed medicines are free of charge for Gibraltarian students and pensioners.

Some specialist care is provided by visiting consultants and in UK and Spanish hospitals. First-line medical and nursing services are provided at the Primary Care Centre, which has 16 GPs, with more specialised services available at St Bernard's Hospital , a bed civilian hospital opened in Psychiatric care is provided by King George V Hospital.

As of the authority was responsible for the health of some 27, individuals. The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins.

While there are Spanish mostly from nearby Andalusia and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to these ethnicities.

Other ethnicities include Genoese , Maltese , Portuguese , and German. British influence remains strong, with English being the language of government, commerce, education and the media.

Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum is celebrated annually on Gibraltar National Day 10 September. It is a public holiday, during which most Gibraltarians dress in their national colours of red and white.

Until , the tradition had been to also release 30, similarly coloured balloons, which represented the people of Gibraltar.

However, this tradition has now been ended because of the threat that it poses to wildlife, particularly marine.

The radio service is also internet-streamed. Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video.

The other local radio service is operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service which also provides a limited cable television network to HM Forces.

The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle , Gibraltar's oldest established daily newspaper and the world's second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously [] with daily editions six days a week.

Native Gibraltarians have produced some literature of note. Throughout the s and s, several anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti , Albert Joseph Patron and Alberto Pizzarello.

Trino Cruz is a bilingual poet originally writing English but now mainly in Spanish, who also translates Maghreb poetry.

Mary Chiappe and Sam Benady have also published a series of detective books centred on the character of the nineteenth-century Gibraltarian sleuth Bresciano.

Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalusian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries.

This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine. Profiteroles , a French choux pastry ball with a sweet filling of whipped cream, is considered to be Gibraltar's national dish.

The outbreak of yellow fever in is the subject of Letitia Elizabeth Landon 's poem Gibraltar. Scene During the Plague.

She published two further poetical illustrations on Gibraltar the following year, Gibraltar—from the Sea.

In , there were 18 Gibraltar sports associations with official recognition from their respective international governing bodies.

Others have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The government supports the many sporting associations financially.

Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games , which it hosted in and again in Football is a popular sport in Gibraltar.

The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA , but their bid was turned down in in a contentious decision.

Cricket enjoys popularity in Gibraltar. Rugby union is fairly popular and one of the fastest growing team sports. Gibraltar Rugby Football Union applied for membership of Europe's governing body for rugby.

Gibraltar is believed to be the birthplace of the rugby variant Tag Rugby. Darts is also a popular sport, with the Gibraltar Darts Association a full member of World Darts Federation since running leagues and other regular tournaments.

Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure; the telephone operator Gibtelecom also operates a GSM network.

Internet connectivity is available across the fixed network. Gibraltar's top-level domain code is.

This has been finally accepted by Spain since 10 February , when the telecom dispute was resolved.

Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorcycles are also very popular and there is a good modern bus service.

There is a Gibraltar Cable Car that runs from ground level to the top of the Rock, with an intermediate station at Apes' Den.

Restrictions on transport introduced by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in and also prohibited any air or ferry connections.

In , the land border was reopened. The road border control is the only one between two EU members [ clarification needed ] that is expected to remain indefinitely.

Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania have border controls which are expected to be removed around Motorists and pedestrians crossing the border with Spain are occasionally subjected to very long delays.

GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways".

In , and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems.

As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. EasyJet have since added Bristol and Manchester and also operated flights to Liverpool between and Until entering administration in October , Monarch Airlines operated the largest number of flights between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar, with scheduled services between Gibraltar and Luton , London Gatwick , Birmingham and Manchester.

The Spanish national airline , Iberia , operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased for lack of demand. Gibraltar International Airport is unusual not only because of its proximity to the city centre resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue , the main north—south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart.

New roads and a tunnel, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, were planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of , [] [] although it has not been completed because of delays.

In addition, the Algeciras Heliport across the bay offers scheduled services to Ceuta. Gibraltar Cruise Terminal receives a large number of visits from cruise ships.

The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the Gibraltar Harbour. Also, a ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier in Morocco.

The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras , which had been halted in when Franco severed communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on 16 December , served by the Spanish company Transcoma.

Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar have been major concerns for its inhabitants throughout its history.

There are no rivers, streams, or large bodies of water on the peninsula. Gibraltar's water supply was formerly provided by a combination of an aqueduct, wells, and the use of cisterns, barrels and earthenware pots to capture rainwater.

This became increasingly inadequate as Gibraltar's population grew in the 18th and 19th centuries and lethal diseases such as cholera and yellow fever began to spread.

In the late 19th century, a Sanitary Commission instigated major improvements which saw the introduction of large-scale desalination and the use of giant water catchments covering over 2.

Today Gibraltar's supply of drinking water comes entirely from desalination , with a separate supply of saltwater for sanitary purposes.

Both supplies are delivered from huge underground reservoirs excavated under the Rock of Gibraltar. Outside the United Kingdom, the RGP is the oldest police force of the former British Empire , formed shortly after the creation of London's Metropolitan Police in when Gibraltar was declared a crown colony on 25 June In general, the Gibraltar force follows British police models in its dress and its mostly male constables and sergeants on foot patrol wear the traditional custodian helmet , the headgear of the British "bobby on the beat".

The helmet is traditionally made of cork covered outside by felt or serge -like material that matches the tunic. The vehicles also appear virtually identical to typical UK police vehicles, but are left hand drive.

The force, whose name received the prefix "Royal" in , currently numbers over officers divided into a number of units. These include the CID , drug squad, special branch , firearms, scene of crime examiners , traffic, marine and operations units, sections or departments.

Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom tri-services British Forces Gibraltar. In January , the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company Serco would provide services to the base.

The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the British Overseas Territory. For other uses, see Gibraltar disambiguation.

British Overseas Territory. British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom. Coat of arms. English Andalusian Spanish Llanito. Gibraltarian British Maghrebis.

Gibraltarian Llanito colloquial. Main article: History of Gibraltar. Main article: Politics of Gibraltar. See also: Disputed status of Gibraltar and Political development in modern Gibraltar.

Places adjacent to Gibraltar. Main article: Climate of Gibraltar. See also: List of mammals of Gibraltar , List of birds of Gibraltar , and List of amphibians and reptiles of Gibraltar.

Main article: Economy of Gibraltar. Main article: Demographics of Gibraltar. See also: Gibraltarian people.

Main article: Languages of Gibraltar. Percentage of population by religion [3] Percentage Roman Catholic.

Main article: Education in Gibraltar. Main article: Culture of Gibraltar. Main article: Sport in Gibraltar. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Communications in Gibraltar.

Main article: Transport in Gibraltar. Main article: Gibraltar International Airport. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Gibraltar.

The Royal Navy 's base in Gibraltar. Gibraltar portal. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration. Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.

Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 5 June Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.

The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.

Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.

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Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 15 June BBC News. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 March Electoral Commission.

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Retrieved 28 June Paragraph 83, p. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 9 January Baseline climate means — from stations all over the world in French.

Retrieved 4 November Global station data — — Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 25 May Gibraltar British Overseas Territory ".

Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

Wenn du ein Bild vergleichbarer Qualität hast, das du unter einer passenden freien Lizenz freigeben kannst, dann lade die Datei hoch, gib ihr eine korrekte Lizenzangabe und nominiere sie! Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Ab dem Sourcearchiviert vom Original am Um die Innenstadt zu besuchen und z. Aus Wiktionary, dem freien Wörterbuch. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Diese Affen sind zu einem Sinnbild für die britische Herrschaft in article source Gebiet geworden. Gibraltar ist ein Überseeterritorium des Vereinigten Königreichs. In: bbc. Die Partie gegen die Slowakei endete Wie die Affen nach Gibraltar kamen ist ungeklärt. Standard Verlagsgesellschaft, Juli See moreabgerufen am Landesteile und Überseegebiete des Vereinigten Königreichs sowie Kronbesitzungen der britischen Krone. Https://greeninitiatives.co/casino-spiele-online-gratis/premier-league-live-schauen.php in El Mundoabgerufen am Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies, 7. August im Webarchiv archive. In: Spiegel Online.

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