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Crusade Deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „crusade“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: the burning crusade, crusade against, crusade for. Übersetzung für 'to crusade' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Wichtigste Übersetzungen. Englisch, Deutsch. crusader nnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (activist) (veraltet), Kreuzritter NmNomen, männlich. Crusade Deutsch

The Crusades were organized by western European Christians after centuries of Muslim wars of expansion.

Their primary objectives were to stop the expansion of Muslim states, to reclaim for Christianity the Holy Land in the Middle East, and to recapture territories that had formerly been Christian.

Many participants also believed that undertaking what they saw as holy war was a means of redemption and a way of achieving expiation of sins.

Louis led the last two Crusades. The First Crusade, called in response to a request for help from the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus , was astonishingly successful.

The Crusaders conquered Nicaea in Turkey and Antioch and then went on to seize Jerusalem , and they established a string of Crusader-ruled states.

Richard signed a peace treaty with Saladin allowing Christians access to Jerusalem. The Fourth Crusade—rather than attacking Egypt , then the centre of Muslim power—sacked the Byzantine Christian city of Constantinople.

None of the following Crusades were successful. The Crusades slowed the advance of Islamic power and may have prevented western Europe from falling under Muslim suzerainty.

The Crusader states extended trade with the Muslim world, bringing new tastes and foods to Europe. The Crusades had a marked impact on the development of Western historical literature, bringing a plethora of chronicles and eyewitness accounts.

However, Constantinople never returned to its former glory after being sacked by the Fourth Crusade, and the schism between Eastern and Roman Catholic Christianity was further entrenched.

The Islamic world saw the Crusaders as cruel invaders, which helped engender distrust and resentment toward the Christian world.

Approximately two-thirds of the ancient Christian world had been conquered by Muslims by the end of the 11th century, including the important regions of Palestine , Syria , Egypt , and Anatolia.

In September , Richard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.

In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinople , marked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.

Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.

The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.

The movement never reached the Holy Land. The peace treaty expired a decade later, and Muslims easily regained control of Jerusalem. This battle, known as the Seventh Crusade, was a failure for Louis.

As the Crusaders struggled, a new dynasty, known as the Mamluks, descended from former slaves of the Islamic Empire, took power in Egypt.

Under the ruthless Sultan Baybars, the Mamluks demolished Antioch in In response, Louis organized the Eighth Crusade in The initial goal was to aid the remaining Crusader states in Syria, but the mission was redirected to Tunis, where Louis died.

Edward I of England took on another expedition in This battle, which is often grouped with the Eighth Crusade but is sometimes referred to as the Ninth Crusade, accomplished very little and was considered the last significant crusade to the Holy Land.

In , one of the only remaining Crusader cities, Acre, fell to the Muslim Mamluks. Many historians believe this defeat marked the end of the Crusader States and the Crusades themselves.

Though the Church organized minor Crusades with limited goals after —mainly military campaigns aimed at pushing Muslims from conquered territory, or conquering pagan regions—support for such efforts diminished in the 16th century, with the rise of the Reformation and the corresponding decline of papal authority.

While the Crusades ultimately resulted in defeat for Europeans and a Muslim victory , many argue that they successfully extended the reach of Christianity and Western civilization.

The Roman Catholic Church experienced an increase in wealth, and the power of the Pope was elevated after the Crusades ended.

Trade and transportation also improved throughout Europe as a result of the Crusades. The wars created a constant demand for supplies and transportation, which resulted in ship-building and the manufacturing of various supplies.

After the Crusades, there was a heightened interest in travel and learning throughout Europe, which some historians believe may have paved the way for the Renaissance.

Among followers of Islam , however, the Crusaders were regarded as immoral, bloody and savage. The ruthless and widespread massacre of Muslims, Jews and other non-Christians resulted in bitter resentment that persisted for many years.

Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War to c. The Islamic historian Carole Hillenbrand has described this as analogous to the fall of the Iron Curtain in with the phrase "familiar political entities gave way to disorientation and disunity".

Later that year, at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban supported this and exhorted war. Passing through Germany they indulged in wide-ranging anti-Jewish activities and massacres.

On leaving Byzantine-controlled territory in Anatolia they were annihilated in a Turkish ambush at the Battle of Civetot in October They were followed by independent military contingents in loose, fluid arrangements based on bonds of lordship, family, ethnicity and language led by members of the high nobility.

The army may have numbered , including non-combatant. They travelled east by land and were cautiously welcomed to Byzantium by Alexios late in The crusade then embarked on an arduous march across Anatolia, suffering starvation, thirst and disease.

The crusaders gained experience in countering the Turkish tactics of employing lightly armoured mounted archers at the Battle of Dorylaeum.

They also developed links with local Armenians. Baldwin left with a small force to establish the County of Edessa , the first Crusader state, early in In June the crusaders gained entry to Antioch after an eight-month siege , massacring most inhabitants, including local Christians.

Kerbogha , the Atabeg of Mosul , led a relief force to the city, but Bohemond repulsed him. There was a delay of months while the crusaders decided who would keep the city.

This ended on the news that the Fatimid Egyptians had taken Jerusalem from the Seljuks. Despite his promise to Alexios, Bohemond retained Antioch and remained while Raymond led the army along the coast to Jerusalem.

They massacred the inhabitants and pillaged the city. Historians believe that contemporary accounts of the numbers killed were exaggerated, but the narrative of massacre reinforced the crusaders' reputation for barbarism.

Many crusaders now considered their pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe. Only knights and 2, infantry remained to defend Palestine.

The support of troops from Lorraine enabled Godfrey, over the claims of Raymond, to take the position of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

A year later the Lorrainers foiled an attempt by Dagobert of Pisa , the papal legate , to make Jerusalem a theocracy on Godfrey's death.

Baldwin was chosen as the first Latin king. Raymond's successors captured the city of Tripoli after his death, with the support of the Genoese.

The expansion of Antioch came to an end in with a major defeat by the Turks at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis , also known as the Field of Blood.

The limited written evidence available from before indicates the crusade was barely noticed in the Islamic world. This was probably the result of cultural misunderstanding: the Muslims did not recognise the crusaders as religiously motivated warriors intent on conquest and settlement.

They assumed this was the latest in a long line of attacks by Byzantine mercenaries. This gave the crusaders an opportunity for consolidation before a pan-Islamic counter-attack.

The rise of Imad al-Din Zengi threatened the Franks. He became Atabeg of Mosul in , expanded his control to Aleppo and in he conquered Edessa.

Bernard of Clairvaux spread the message that the loss was the result of sinfulness. Simultaneously, the anti-Semitic preaching of the Cistercian monk, Rudolf, initiated more massacres of Jews in the Rhineland.

Zengi was murdered in uncertain circumstances. Edessa's destruction made its recovery impossible, and the objectives were unclear. The French held the Byzantines responsible for their defeats by the Seljuks in Anatolia, while the Byzantines reiterated claims on any future territorial gains in northern Syria.

The crusaders decided to attack Damascus, breaking a long period of cooperation between Jerusalem and the city's Seljuk rulers.

Bad luck, poor tactics and a feeble five-day siege of the city led to argument; the barons of Jerusalem withdrew support and the crusaders retreated before Zengi's sons' army.

The chronicler William of Tyre related, and modern historians have concurred, that morale fell, hostility to the Byzantines grew and distrust developed between the newly arrived crusaders and those that had made the region their home.

Jerusalem demonstrated an increasing interest in expanding into Egyptian territory after the capture of Ascalon in opened the road south.

Amalric broke the alliance in a series of ferocious attacks and the Egyptians requested military support.

Amalric retreated and the Fatimid caliph appointed the Sunni Shirkuh as vizier. Saladin successfully intrigued to become Shirkuh's successor on his death in Saladin imprisoned the last Fatimids and established a Sunni regime in Egypt.

The prince died seven years later, but Saladin had already seized Damascus and much of Syria from his ward's relatives.

This force was lured into inhospitable terrain without water and routed by Saladin's forces at the Battle of Hattin. Numerous Christian nobles were taken prisoner, including Guy.

Saladin offered them the option of leaving within 40 days or remaining in peace under Islamic rule. Jerusalem and much of Palestine quickly fell to Saladin.

In August , the freed King Guy attempted to recover Acre by surrounding the city and a long stalemate ensued. King Richard I of England travelled by sea.

Philip II of France was the first king to arrive at the siege. The arrival of the French and English turned the tide in the conflict, and the Muslim garrison of Acre surrendered.

Philip considered his vow fulfilled and returned to France, leaving most of his forces behind. Richard travelled south along the Mediterranean coast and recaptured Jaffa.

Twice he advanced to within a day's march of Jerusalem, but lacked the resources to capture and defend the city.

A negotiated three-year truce allowed Frankish access to Jerusalem. This was the end of Richard's crusading career and damaged Frankish morale.

Henry died before departing on the crusade, but the arrival of the German crusaders prompted Saladin's brother, Al-Adil I to sign a five-year truce in The Italian Boniface of Montferrat replaced Theobald on the latter's premature death, as the new commander of the campaign.

They contracted with the Republic of Venice for the transportation of 30, crusaders at a cost of 85, marks. However, many choose other embarkation ports and only around 15, arrived at Venice.

Unable to fully pay the Venetians they accepted two offers. The Doge of Venice Enrico Dandolo proposed that Venice would be repaid with the profits of future conquests beginning with the seizure of the Christian city of Zara.

Innocent III excommunicated the crusaders for their capture of Zara, but quickly absolved the French. Without ships, supplies or food the crusaders had little option than to take by force what Alexios had promised.

The Sack of Constantinople involved three days pillaging churches and killing much of the Greek Orthodox Christian populance.

A council of six Venetians and six Franks partitioned the territorial gains, establishing a Latin Empire. Venice gained a maritime domain including the remaining portion of the city.

Both Baldwin and Boniface died fighting the Bulgarians , leading the papal legate to release the crusaders from their obligations.

Joining King Aimery on campaign they forced al-Adil into a six-year truce. The Latin states established were a fragile patchwork of petty realms threatened by Byzantine successor states—the Despotate of Epirus , the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond.

Thessaloniki fell to Epirus in , and Constantinople to Nicaea in Achaea and Athens survived under the French after the Treaty of Viterbo.

This period of Greek history is known as the Frankokratia or Latinokratia "Frankish or Latin rule" and designates a period when western European Catholics ruled Orthodox Byzantine Greeks.

There were repeated popular outbursts of ecstatic piety in 13th-century Western Europe such as the Children's Crusade of , when large groups of young adults and children gathered spontaneously in the belief that their innocence would lead to success where others had failed.

Few, if any, journeyed to the eastern Mediterranean. There was no immediate threat and a number of treaties had to expire first.

The crusaders attacked Egypt to break the Muslim hold of Jerusalem. Egypt was isolated from the other Islamic power centres, it would be easier to defend and was self-sufficient in food.

Damietta was captured but then returned and an eight-year truce agreed after the Franks advancing into Egypt surrendered.

In he embarked on crusade, but was forced to abandon it due to illness. This prompted his excommunication by Pope Gregory IX.

Despite this Frederick launched a campaign of forceful negotiation that won the Franks most of Jerusalem, a strip of territory linking the city to Acre and an alliance with Al-Kamil , Sultan of Egypt.

When the Pope attacked Frederick's Italian possessions he returned to defend them. The Franks followed Frederick's tactics of forceful diplomacy and playing rival factions off against each other when Sultan Al-Kamil died and his family fell into disputes over the succession in Egypt and Syria.

The Mongols provided a new military threat to the Christian and Islamic worlds, sweeping west through southern Russia, Poland and Hungary; defeating the Seljuks and threatening the Crusader states.

Although predominantly pagan, some Mongols were Nestorian Christians. This gave the papacy hope they might become allies. But when Pope Innocent IV wrote to the Mongols to question their attacks on Christians they replied demanding his total submission.

The Khwarazmians captured Jerusalem and savagely sacked it. This was the last time the Franks had the resources to raise a field army in Palestine.

As-Salah conquered almost all of the crusaders' mainland territories, confining them to a few coastal towns. In Louis led a crusade attacking Egypt and was defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah and the crusaders were captured as they retreated.

Louis and his nobles were ransomed, other prisoners were given a choice of conversion to Islam or beheading. A ten-year truce was established and Louis remained in Syria until consolidating the Frankish position.

In Egypt a power struggle developed between the Mamluks and the Ayyubid rulers. This led to one of the Mamluk leaders, Qutuz , seizing the sultanate in and uniting with another Mamluk faction led by Baibars.

Qutuz was assassinated and Baibars assumed control. Division in the crusader states led to conflicts such as the War of Saint Sabas.

Venice drove the Genoese from Acre to Tyre where they continued trading with the Egyptians. Their army was devastated by disease, and Louis died at Tunis.

Prince Edward , the future king of England, and a small retinue arrived too late for the conflict but continued to the Holy Land.

Edward survived an assassination attempt, negotiated a ten-year truce, and then returned to manage his affairs in England.

This ended the last significant crusading effort in the eastern Mediterranean. The causes of the decline in crusading and the failure of the crusader states are multi-faceted.

The nature of crusades was unsuited to the defence of the Holy Land. Crusaders were on a personal pilgrimage and usually returned when it was completed.

Although the ideology of crusading changed over time, crusades continued to be conducted without centralised leadership by short-lived armies led by independently minded potentates, but the crusader states needed large standing armies.

Religious fervour was difficult to direct and control even though it enabled significant feats of military endeavour.

Political and religious conflict in Europe combined with failed harvests reduced Europe's interest in Jerusalem. The distances involved made the mounting of crusades and the maintenance of communications difficult.

It enabled the Islamic world, under the charismatic leadership of Zengi, Nur al-Din, Saladin, the ruthless Baibars and others, to use the logistical advantages of proximity.

After the First Crusade most of the crusaders considered their personal pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe.

Palestinian Christians lived around Jerusalem and in an arc stretching from Jericho and the Jordan to Hebron in the south.

Maronites were concentrated in Tripoli, the Jacobites in Antioch and Edessa. Armenians also lived in the north but communities existed in all major towns.

Central areas had a Muslim majority population, predominantly Sunni but with Shi'ite communities in Galilee. Druze Muslims lived in the mountains of Tripoli.

The Jewish population resided in coastal towns and some Galilean villages. He estimates that by that these figures had risen to Russell acknowledges that much of Anatolia was Christian or under the Byzantines and "Islamic" areas such as Mosul and Baghdad had significant Christian populations.

The Outremer was a frontier society in which a Frankish elite ruled over of a native population related to the neighbouring communities, many of whom were hostile to the Franks.

Relations between communities were controlled by the Franks. All Franks were considered free men while the native peoples lived like western serfs.

The Franks imposed officials in the military, legal and administrative systems using the law and lordships to control the natives.

Few Franks could speak more than basic Arabic. Civil disputes and minor criminality were administered by the native communities, but major offences and those involving Franks were dealt by the Frankish cour des bourgeois.

The key differentiator in status and economic position was between urban and rural dwellers. Indigenous Christians could gain higher status and acquire wealth through commerce and industry in towns but few Muslims lived in urban areas except servants.

The Crusader States presented an obstacle to Muslim trade with the west by sea and the land routes from Mesopotamia and Syria to the urban economies of the Nile.

However, despite this commerce continued, coastal cities remained maritime outlets for the Islamic hinterland, Eastern wares were exported to Europe in unprecedented volumes.

European fleets expanded, better ships were built, navigation improved and fare paying pilgrims subsidised many voyages.

The mainly native agricultural production flourished before the fall of the First Kingdom in , but was negligible afterwards.

The Franks exported textiles, glass dyestuffs, olives, wine, sesame oil, sugar and prized Silk and imported clothing and finished goods.

After , Egyptian dinars were copied creating Jerusalem's gold bezant. Following the collapse of the First Kingdom in , trade rather than agriculture increasingly dominated the economy and western coins dominated the coinage and despite some local minting of silver pennies and coppers there is little evidence of systematic attempts to create a unified local currency.

The result was that the royal domain of the first five rulers was greater than the combined holdings of the nobility.

This gave the rulers of Jerusalem greater internal power than comparative western monarchs but without the necessary administrative machinery to govern a large realm.

Crusade Deutsch

Crusade Deutsch Video

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